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Observed limitations to "rules" in physics

R. B. Laughlin* and David Pines†‡§

"For better or worse we are now witnessing a transition from the science of the past, so intimately linked to reductionism, to the study of complex adaptive matter, firmly based in experiment, with its hope for providing a jumping-off point for new discoveries, new concepts, and new wisdom."


Nicolai Hartmann

"the modern discoverer of emergence—originally called by him categorial novum."


Similarity modeling

Similarity modeling - Similarity modeling uses the same parameters as distributional analysis, but it assumes nice clusters are not possible. Instead it makes ad-hoc analogies by averaging sets of properties, as required:

E.g. Dagan, Marcus, Markovitch '95: (p.g. 32, long version) "It has been
traditionally assumed that ... information about words should be
generalized using word classes ... However, it was never clearly shown
that unrestricted language is indeed structured in accordance with
this assumption."

(and previously on p.g. 4) "... our method assumes that

Paul Hopper's Emergent Grammar

Berkeley Linguistics Society, vol. 13 (1987), 139-157

"I am concerned in this paper with the ... the assumption of an
abstract, mentally represented rule system which is somehow implemented when
we speak.

...'Culture is temporal, emergent, and disputed'
(Clifford 1986:19). I believe the same is true of grammar, which like speech
itself must be viewed as a real-time, social phenomenon, and therefore is
temporal; its structure is always deferred, always in a process but never
arriving, and therefore emergent; and since I can only choose a tiny fraction

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