Chaotic Logic: Language, Thought, and Reality from the Perspective of Complex Systems Science (IFSR International Series on Systems Science and Engineering) (Hardcover) by Ben Goertzel
The "Rhizomik initiative" claims to have "modelled a meaningful portion of the Semantic Web showing that it satisfies Complex Systems properties":
Giuseppe Vitiello has been working with W. J. Freeman to relate the properties of many-body systems to cognition.
Here is a paper on possible relationships between quantum theory, symmetry breaking, and chaotic classical Hamiltonians:
John Sowa writing on the Ontolog discussion list 2007 (http://ontolog.cim3.net/forum/ontolog-forum/2008-02/msg00085.html):
"René Thom, who founded catastrophe theory and received the Fields
Medal for his efforts, was firmly convinced that all areas of human
perception and cognition -- language, in particular -- depend on
features that are closely related to catastrophe theory.
Wolfgang Wildgen is a linguist who developed Thom's ideas on
catastrophe theory applied to of semantics. For various papers
and PowerPoint slides (in English, German, and French) see